D I S C I P L E S H I P  27 maturation process. I believe the answer is the same for both questions, and the biblical text provides the answer. Ephesians 2:7 and 3:10 both contain a word that answers this question. The Greek word that is translated as “heavenly places” is ἐπουρανίοις. In addition to 1:3, 1:20, 2:6, and 3:10, it also occurs in 6:12. What is noteworthy is how Paul uses the word in 6:12 as compared to the other verses. In 1:3, our spiritual blessings are given in “heavenly places.” In 1:20 and 2:6, the word is used to describe the dwelling place of God. In 3:10, this word is used to describe to whom God’s wisdom is to be revealed. And so, we come to 6:12. Here Paul is describing the spiritual warfare in which believers are engaged and the armor of God with which we are to be clothed. What is striking is the connotation the word carries in 6:12. The believer’s battle is against the “rulers, against the authorities, against the cosmic powers over this pres- ent darkness and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places” (emphasis mine). The “heavenly places” here is the lo- cale of spiritual warfare. This can’t be the dwelling place of God. That battle takes place in the spiritual realm (dimension), not the physical. The New Bible Commentary says this about ἐπουρανίοις in 3:10: …God’s whole purpose in Paul’s preaching, teaching, and praying ministry is that the church should be built up to become the manifestation of God’s richly varie- gated (the word used originally meant ‘multi-colored’) wisdom to the rulers and authorities in the heavenly realms. What does this involve? The rulers in question are probably the whole host of heavenly beings; not mere- ly God’s angels nor merely the evil powers of 6:12 but both. They are the assembled witnesses before whom God vindicates his wisdom. He does this through a