G O D I N A G O D F O R S A K E N L A N D 41 in transit to new lives and livelihoods. These were people whose hands were rough, with dirt under their fingernails from scrap- ing out a new future. These were people who had turned their backs on the Old Country and jumped with both feet into a new life. Perhaps St. Louis itself was my preparation for my mission. I had left the political turmoil of Germany to find myself in the aftermath of the horrendous turmoil of the Civil War in America. Even the seminary was in its own way drawn into the skirmish, as the “practical” seminary was moved to St. Louis, since in Mis- souri, seminary students would not be drafted. As I entered the seminary, the whole approach to ministry in America was changing. A more practical approach that was less theoretical suited the needs of newly settling pioneers as they emigrated to Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Kansas. I felt called to a practical seminary education. Certainly there was much discussion, as some still adhered to the German approach, which consisted of a more scholarly (and therefore theoretical) seminary experience. There was never any lessening of standards though, and we certainly studied the Word in its inerrant capacity of our faith. Walther was the president of the seminary and oversaw the the- oretical side of our studies. Craemer was the leader of the prac- tical side of the seminary. He had come to St. Louis from Fort Wayne when the institution was relocated. “So, August, do we sacrifice orthodoxy of our faith when we study in German rather than Latin or Hebrew?” Herr Claus ques- tioned me after our historical theology class. Claus was a very serious-minded student and proceeded with care and question- ing. The son of a strict Lutheran minister, Claus weighed each word as he spoke and always wore a formal shirt and coat. “What good does it do to dwell on the original language when our parishioners all speak German?” my beliefs always related to my practical upbringing.